Chemistry Notes

I shall be posting here resources which will help you to understand better and in depth the concepts we study in our course.

Sunday, October 19, 2014

Nobel prize in Chemistry 2014

How does the microscope help us to see the molecules in vivo?

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Revision on mole

You can revise here the concept of MOLE:

Sunday, October 12, 2014

Element 82 - Lead

The fatal attraction of LEAD:

Wednesday, October 08, 2014

RSC - Learn chemistry

Great resources for teachers and students. You can go to student section and read the Mole Magazine:

Beautiful Chemistry!

Enjoy Beautiful Chemistry!

Monday, October 06, 2014

Science in school

 You can find here many interesting articles. Just browse...

Saturday, September 07, 2013

Interesting Crash Course on Youtube, covering different topics in Chemistry. Have a look!

Tuesday, August 20, 2013

Two very good sites for your preparation in Chemistry:

Saturday, August 25, 2012

Writing chemical formula and balancing equations:

Sunday, November 20, 2011

Periodic properties

Variation in physical properties - conductors and insulators:

Reaction of alkali metals with water:

Reaction of sodium with chlorine:

Reaction of some metals with oxygen:

Reactivity of halogens:

Precipitation reactions:

Wednesday, October 19, 2011


Why is chromatography so useful for analysis of mixtures in Chemistry and Biochemistry? You can learn visiting the following sites:

How to prepare your sample for microscale flash column chromatography:

HPLC chromatography:

Gas-liquid chromatography:

Sunday, October 02, 2011

2011 - International Year of Chemistry

If you have time, have a look at the video of Royal Society of Chemistry used to launch 2011 as the year of Chemistry!

Chemistry Heritage Foundation

Chemistry Heritage Foundation - pod casts:

BASF podcasts

Chemistry innovations - BASF podcasts:

Thursday, September 23, 2010

The World of Chemistry

You can watch nice video about the World of Chemistry here:

Thursday, January 14, 2010

Addition reactions in organic chemistry

Hydrocarbons and addition reactions:

Properties of ethene:

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Introduction to Chemistry - Animations

Animations from Mark Bishops' textbook:

Dissolving NaCl in water:

Structure of ice and water:

Introduction to Chemistry - Animations

Animations from Mark Bishops' textbook:

Monday, December 07, 2009

Carbon cycle

Explanation of Carbon cycle:

Carbon dioxide and greenhouse effect

Look at this simple experiment which shows the effect of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas:

Wednesday, December 02, 2009


Nice demonstrations for hybridization:

Organic chemistry

Look at this site for help in organic chemistry:

Saturday, September 12, 2009

Scientific method

What is the scientific method and how to organize your experiments? You can look at the following site:

Tuesday, June 02, 2009

periodic table

For those of you who are fascinated by the periodic table, this site with short videos for every element will be very useful:

And the following link will bring you to a very interactive periodic table!

Listen about the story behind the discovery of different elements:

What about elements 119 and 120? Can we make them?

Monday, June 01, 2009

Revision-Thermochemistry, Kinetics, Equilibrium, Acids and bases and Electrochemistry

A very good site for revision of some topics:

Thursday, January 17, 2008


What is enthalpy (H):

Hess law and some calculations:

Entropy and the second law of thermodynamics:

Tuesday, November 27, 2007

Transition metals

Transition metals:

Oxidation states in Transition elements:

in transition metals:

Friday, November 23, 2007

Period 3 oxides and chlorides

Period 3 oxides and chlorides:

Aluminium chloride changes structure when melted:

Tetrahedron of structures:

Sunday, November 11, 2007

Aldehydes and ketones

What are the important reactions of carbonyl compounds? You can read following this site:

Sunday, October 28, 2007


Please, visit this site if you want to learn more about alcohols:

Friday, October 26, 2007

Halogenoalkanes-substitution versus elimination

You can read about nucleophilic substitution and elimination reactions with halogenoalkanes on this site:

Tuesday, February 13, 2007

States of matter

 A good animation about states of matter: 

Tuesday, January 23, 2007

Vision learning

A wonderful site which starts with the atom and goes through different topics we discuss in class:

Tuesday, January 09, 2007

Bonding lessons

Explanation of ionic, covalent and metallic bond in lecture of Khan academy:

Here are some interesting bonding lessons with good animations:

A good site for Lewis structures of molecules with quiz questions:

What is VSEPR theory?

Intermolecular forces determine many properties of the substances. Read here to learn more about their nature:

Gecko forces-what are they?

Some confidence building questions on intermolecular forces:

Relationship between structure and properties:

Water and its "unusual" properties!

To read about the hybridization you can browse this site:

Allotropic forms of Carbon:

What are the buckyballs (fullerenes)? How were they discovered and many interesting facts about this new allotropic form of carbon you can read on the following sites?

And...what is graphene?

Monday, December 18, 2006

Interactive IB syllabus site

Look at this interactive site! It can help you to understand many concepts which we cover in our IB syllabus:

Another good site for revision:

Saturday, December 16, 2006

Significant figures

What is accuracy and precision in science?

Here is a link to the tutorial of how to use significant figures in your calculations:

Tuesday, November 21, 2006

atomic spectra

What is the electromagnetic spectrum?

How to view the continuous and line emission spectra?

Models of an atom:

Is the electron a particle or wave?

Atomic properties:
The energy levels in atoms and ions are the key to the production and detection of light. Visit the following sites to learn more about the mystery of emission and absorption spectra:

A nice representation of an origin of a Balmer series in the Hydrogen emission spectrum you can see on the following sites:

Look on the energy level diagrams for different elements on this site:

If you want to see the Thomson's cathode ray tube you can visit the following site:

The interactive site about Rutherford experiment:

Sunday, January 15, 2006

Redox equilibria

A rather comprehensive site explaining electrode potentials and electrochemical cells:

Electrolysis of different solutions:

Real voltaic cells will typically differ from the standard conditions. The Nernst equation takes into account the effect of temperature and ion concentrations on cell potential. Read about the equation on this site:

Application of redox reactions:

How can you build the electrochemical cell using fruits? Look at this site:

Monday, November 21, 2005


Here you can read a comprehensive explanation of UV-Vis spectroscopy:

Why are complex ions of transition metals and many organic molecules coloured? You can read on these two sites:

Mass spectrometry is a powerful technique to determine the relative atomic masses:

Here are some videos from Royal Society of Chemistry about different spectroscopic techniques:

Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) used to determine low concentration of metal ions:

Tuesday, November 15, 2005


You can enlarge your understanding about isomerism visiting the following site:

You can exercise on optical isomerism if you follow the link:

Why is optical isomerism important for the biological systems?

Wednesday, November 09, 2005

Acids and bases

You can revise here the two theories about acids and bases:

Tuesday, November 08, 2005

Analytical methods

You can consult these sites about the three analytical methods mostly used for analysing the sample - Mass spectroscopy, IR - and NMR - spectroscopy:
Look at this site to see how a mixture of proteins is separated by Affinity chromatography:

Using the HPLC chromatography:

Tuesday, October 04, 2005


You can consult this site for hybridization of carbon in methane and ethene:

and the hybridization of carbon and oxygen in carbon dioxide:

If you follow the link at the end for Main menu you can access sites for Organic reaction mechanisms, bonding etc. You just need time and curiosity!

Bonding, geometry of molecules and hybridization are closely connected. Look at these sites to understand the formation of different types of bonds:

A nice demo of hybrid and molecular orbitals:

Tuesday, September 27, 2005

Carboxylic acids

Very comprehensive site about carboxylic acids:

Monday, September 26, 2005

Chemical equilibria

How did Napoleon Bonaparte help discover reversible reactions? Visit this excellent site!

You can use also these sites for better understanding of chemical equilibria:


Effect of temperature on equilibrium:

Saturday, September 24, 2005

Naming organic compounds

If you want some additional practice in naming organic compounds, visit these sites:

Monday, September 19, 2005

Nobel prizes in Chemistry

You can read here about recent Nobel prize winners in Chemistry on this site:

Tuesday, September 13, 2005


These site are helpful with understanding the factors influencing the rate of reaction:

A comprehensive site about kinetics:

Monday, September 12, 2005


Welcome to the Chemistry Blog! I hope this will become a way of enriching our communication.